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eAssist Mechanisms







eAssist Theory

Slap a motor on a vehicle, and just GO. That's the easy part. This page covers the factors that allow a person to get on a vehicle, take it for a spin, and gave a grin on their face when they get back after their very first 'test' ride. The key to the "grin effect" is an interface between the human and the machine that is comfortable, intuitive, and *safe*! These issues apply to *any* vehicle operated by a human which has some kind of motorized assist mechanism.

The following post by Justin on ES way back in 2013 summarizes the issues to consider, and are as true today (whenever that is) as they were then. Follow the link to read the full thread, which is chock-full of great information.

Post subject: Re: Weight Sensing Longboard with Inline Wheel Motors
PostPosted: Thu Apr 25, 2013 11:31 pm
Location: Vancouver

... I used to believe I preferred throttle control over a torque sensing pedalec style ebike. But then, once I started riding more ebikes that had nicely integrated pedalec I realized that for the most part this was a nicer and more natural control interface between the human and the bike, since it's using the same input (your leg power) that you already use. Similarly, since leaning is such a core part of how you maneuver a skateboard (or surfboard, snowboard etc) I think that it would be a more natural control extention for motor power than moving one of your digits across a throttle. If you've ridden a throttle controlled board, you learn quickly that you need to lean forwards first before you engage it or the board will shoot out from under you. So the leaning already has to take place, and the brain has to learn to do that first in anticipation of you hitting the throttle.
In any case, our brains have a great way of figuring out control schemes and turning them into an extension of ourselves regardless of how they're implemented, so pretty much anything can work. Like gamers who achieve all kinds of delicate feats from pushing buttons on a keyboard or control pad, even though those button presses have nothing to do with the action going on the screen. We are used to pushing foot pedals to accelerate and brake a car, but why not instead have little throttles and buttons on the steering wheel for that? Or why have a steering wheel at all when you could use your feet to turn and then use your hands on a joystick to accelerate? I don't know if anyone's actually studying what is the 'best' way for a human to control a 2000lb vehicle, but given that we're no longer constrained by having to do everything with mechanical linkages like in the old days it's a question worth asking.




The label "PAS" (Pedal Assist System) on this site primarily refers to cadence counter mechanisms. These mechanical devices simply determine when you begin pedaling, how fast you are pedaling, which direction you are pedaling in, and when you stop pedaling. Cadence refers to how fast you are pedaling, and is expressed in units of RPM (revolutions per minute). Systems that detect "how hard" you are pedaling are covered under the torque_sensors section.

Refer to Grin's comprehensive PAS page for a great selection of "off-the-shelf" PAS hardware and how to use it. This page also covers CA3 Aux Input Devices and how to best use them with PAS setups, as well as setting up basic PAS sensors with CA3.1 Firmware. If there are issues with PAS and the CA, this page should be your first stop.




See Cycle Analyst (v3) for CA specific throttle setup.

A typical ebike throttle, or any light electric vehicle ("LEV") throttle for that matter, uses sensors that are either resistive (like a Magura twist grip) or Hall Effect (like typical chinese twist grips or thumb levers). Resistive throttles use variable resistors to alter the throttle signal, while the Hall type uses small powerful magnets that move closer or further away from a sensor that responds to magnetic fields. No matter what type of sensor is used, any throttle device will supply the controller's "throttle" input port with a 1 to ~4.5 volt DC signal. This will ideally be an analog voltage signal, but digital ("PWM" and "PPM") signals are also used (See the VESC Controller Throttle Input section for more details about this). The 0.085-1.0 volt signal range represents a fully "closed" (neutral) throttle while the 4+ volts represents a wide open ("WOT") throttle. The exact throttle voltage signals will vary and depend on the controller, as well as other devices used on the LEV. Note that the use of the word "throttle" is borrowed from the internal combustion engine (ICE) world, where the "throttle" typically represented the "butterfly valve" in the intake barrel of a carburetor. Since the position of this valve controlled the power output of the engine, we've become used to the terms of a throttle being "open" or "closed" (or somewhere in between).

Bi-directional Throttle

When the LEV is capable of proportional regenerative braking (see regen), an opportunity exists for the throttle to also become an e-braking control. This is an issue of convenience and safety for the rider. When used this way, the throttle must also be able to produce a signal that goes *down* from the 0.85 volt "neutral" throttle zone, hence the name "bi-directional". As the throttle signal approaches 0.00 (zero) volts, the vehicle slows down proportionally, following the throttle signal. The amount of slowing is proportional to the regen taking place, and depends on the combination of motor(s), controller(s), and battery capacity. Regen is typically expressed in units of negative watts. Note that regen braking requires a non-freewheeling motor (direct drive) and a controller whose firmware supports this feature.

For the bi-directional throttle, I'm thinking of a non-moving joystick-type lever fitted with strain gauges. When no pressure is exerted, the amplifier board we already have will output around 0.85 volts, which is the ebike throttle deadzone. Pushing the stick forwards will increase the output voltage up to around 4.5 volts (full throttle forward), while pulling back drops the voltage to below 0.85 towards 0.00 volts, which is full regen torque.

I did the first test ride of my new ebike outdoors on Sunday with a combination ebrake lever and thumb throttle, and the voltages are now spot on. While this works OK, it's more complicated than it should be since I have to 'crack' the ebrake lever to activate ebraking mode, then use the forward throttle to vary the braking force. NOT "intutitive", and it makes it harder to put a newbie rider on the bike and have them be comfortable on it. However, I can bring the bike from 35MPH down to a crawl in a matter of seconds with just motor braking, which is the point of this exercise. It's about 600 watts of ebrake power, which is plenty for "normal" uses. In an emergency I can still use the mechanical brakes (disc front, rim brakes rear).

If you've got any ideas about what kind of "stick" to use for a single control, let me know. I guess I should even entertain the notion of a sensored 'grip', since that might be more ergonomically useful. It should be comfortable for the hand, and be usable with a mitten for cold weather use. I've gotten pretty good with strain gauges, so I think I could fit them to nearly any kind of physical device. If there was an off-the-shelf bike handle device already out there that I could modify, that would be great as well.

But here we'll have a twist grip throttle that *doesn't move* (rotate). Simply trying to twist it one way or the other will either accelerate or brake. The advantage is that I have no moving parts, it water/weatherproof, and the 'detent' for the throttle neutral/deadzone position is automatically built-in and self-adjusting (the rider doesn't twist it in either direction). Sensitivity is fully adjustable via electronics. It's exactly the same technology I'm using where the whole handlebar is the throttle/brake combination; now just reduced to the grip on one end of the handlebars.

See this Strain Gages page on this site for their use in measuring human pulling effort to result in an e-assist throttle substitute setup.

See also: page for measuring torque using their specially designed strain gages (shown in following photos). This site is sponsored by Micro-Measurements/Vishay (UK), but has great information.


Use two of the following dual-grid, common-tab pattern [M-M/Vishay Dual-Shear (Grid) Pattern, 187UV], mounted diametrically opposed on the shaft, for a full bridge implementation. This can be more accurate than the single gage approach. The central common tab is for the signal output.

Installation of Strain Gages on "grip shaft"

This youtube video by M-M/Vishay demonstrates the preferred method for mounting two gages at 90 degrees to each other and 45 degrees from the shaft's centerline. Repeating this with two additional gages 180 degrees (opposite side) on the same shaft would allow wiring for a full wave bridge configuration. At this point I'm *assuming* that we can pick up an output signal from the bridge that goth both up and down so we can translate it into a throttle/brake signal following the shaft being twisted in one direction and then the other. This must be *proven* before this idea for a bi-directional throttle is valid.

Regen Braking

Justin answering ES questions:

Justin: "You really want the hand opposite the throttle to be the one that activates the regen button, ideally just via an ebrake swtich [sic] on the brake lever, but otherwise a stand alone push button on the left side would do the trick if you have the throttle on the right."

[Editor/hj: Note that the typo for "switch" above is actually fairly common and yields some interesting results when your force a search for this spelling on ES.]

Other: "Having gone through the various alternatives in my head, I feel that a second left-handed thumb throttle would be the best way to implement proportional regen."

Justin: "That would also work just great. There is no problem at all parallel connecting two throttles together and combining their outputs. Since the throttle output signal can source current but it can't sink current, then whichever throttle has the higher voltage signal is the signal that dominates. So simply split your throttle wires to go to both the left and right hand throttles and you'll have [it] made."

MrDude_1 wrote: "I do have one question though.. what size is the power out plug on the Cycle Analyst? the one intended for running lights? I have a bluetooth adapter I use for the serial data, and I want to run the power off of that plug. (I have a DC-DC adapter to drop it to 5v)"

Justin: "It's a common DC 5.5x2.1mm barrel plug, and you can get the matching jack for that at many places."







Torque Sensors

Any e-assist mechanism that needs to know exactly how much effort is being expended by the rider will need some kind of torque sensor. Human effort can be approximated somewhat by simply measuring movement. This could be pedal rotations, i.e. "cadence", in a traditional bicycle, or the length and frequency of a rowing stroke in an alternate propulsion system. However, here we focus on measuring the actual force ("torque") exerted by the rider. We break down these torque sensors by their 'off-the-shelf' availability as finished commercial units vs. making custom devices using strain gages and load cells..


There are numerous torque sensing hardware devices available for use with LEV e-assist systems, especially if pedaling is primary human input method. Some devices designed for pedaling may be modified for other uses.

TDCM bottom bracket

Harry Wigglesworth
Head of European Operations
Tel (TW): +886-9-81-529-661 | Tel (EU): +49-178-239-0088
Skype: harry.wigglesworth |

diagram of TDCM in bottom bracket

TDCM torque bottom bracket Manual (PDF, 26 pps)

The following summary is based on ~ 05/04/2015 emails with Grin and Harry W.

Excitation voltage; current consumed by TDCM BB +5/6 VDC Input Voltage, 25 mA Power Consumption
NOTE: Grin Tech ( "define and specify specific specifications to work with their Cycle Analyst controller, based on a 12V input voltage." The CAv3 connector describes it as 10VDC.

Signal voltage returned from BB:
The effective voltage span (signal size) is ONE VOLT (1V), falling into the ~ 2.4V to 3.4V DC range.

Maximum torque measured on pedals:
The maximum force applied to the petals, beyond which there is no change in the output signal voltage is ~40Nm

Connectors and conductors TDCM uses different pin defines and cable numbers depending on the specification - see page 6/7 of Manual.

TDCM female connector specs (PDF, 1 pps)

TDCM male connector specs (PDF, 1 pps)

Emails between Tringa, Scott O., Grin Tech (Justin et al.), and TDCM (Harry W).





Sempu bottom bracket

The Sempu units are chinese clones of the TDCM and earlier bottom bracket units which had torque and cadence sensors built into them. They have become increaingly reliable are frequently used for their lower prices. GRIN now supports their use.


Strain Gages and Load Cells

Strain Gages

Read this brief tutorial from National Instruments (Application Note 078) to get a technically competent understanding of how strain gages work. While there are some formulas with funny math symbols, you can easily skim over them without compromising your understanding. It's a 12 page PDF file, but even reading just the first few pages will provide you with the basics.

Note that "gage" is generally considered to be the American spelling, while "gauge" is the British form. Either form is in common usage. Strain gages are typically used in pairs so that you can combine both tension and compression forces in one sensing device. This approach also doubles the sensor's signal strength because while one gage's resistance goes up the other's goes down. The gages are connected so that the measurement equals the total change.

Justin's advice is "For the best sensitivity with strain gauges, you want to build a full bridge with two gauges in compression and two in tension."
From the same ES forum thread referred to previously, he says the following: (Posted: Thu Mar 19, 2015)
Strain gauges are just resistors etched in a zig zag grid, and when the surface of the metal is under tension, it stretches, elongating and thinning the resistor wire causing its resistance to increase tinyest amount (less than 1%). Similarly, when the metal surface is under compression, the resistive wire gets shorter and fatter, lowering its resistance by a fraction of a percent. It's one of the most deceptively simple and ridiculously accurate electromechanical sensor devices, but it does require a high precision low drift instrumentation amplifier to turn the bridge output into a 0-5V signal.

I already detailed the amplifier circuitboard and strain gauge operation on this thread here

I got most of my strain gauge education from Richard Nakka's rocketry website way back in the day. 15 years later his website is still there and still a great reference:

Strain gauges are manufactured by Vishay (very high end, expensive), Omega (good, but "cheaper"); Revere; Micro Engineering (the kind we got). For a very extensive reference to all things "strain gage" -- see this online PDF reference by Omega Engineering: PRACTICAL STRAIN GAGE MEASUREMENTS

The measure of the gage's resistance change with strain is GAGE FACTOR, GF. Gage factor is defined as the ratio of the fractional change in resistance to the fractional change in length (strain) along the axis of the gage. The gage factor is a dimensionless quantity, and the larger the value, the more sensitive the strain gage. Gage factor is expressed in equation (see original PDF). The gage factor for Constantan and nickel-chromium alloy strain gages is nominally 2, and various gage and instrumentation specifications are usually based on this nominal value. This means that twice the strain results in twice the change in resistance -- a strain gage is "linear".

Close-up of a Strain Gage


SR-4 Strain Gages

Same model as used on the original moon lander in 1969
photo of SR-4 strain gages

MOUNTING Strain Gages

This section covers the mechanical process of "gluing" strain gages to some substrate.
Useful material from Keith J. Wakeham, B.Eng, M.Eng, re Strain Gages on a Bicycle Crank Keith has a history of using strain gages in the bicycle world, and somewhere around 2014 ended up working for, making "power meters", which do just what we want int terms of measuring the rider's torque and cadence input, but just *report* this data to the rider instead of translating it into a throttle signal.

Solder on fine wires [directly to the foil of the strain gage], usually 30--36 AWG wires [I can use the very fine pre-tinned (silvered), insulated wire I have in 6" precut lengths] to the pads. You'll see my new version using bondable terminals as it's easier to bond small wires to gauges and big wires to the terminals. It also provides strain relief. Two gauges are wired in series and measured against the mid point of a voltage divider creating a half wheatstone bridge arrangement. [I think Keith put one strain gauge, at 120 ohms, on the top edge and one on bottom of a crank arm, connected in series to make up one side of the wheatstone bridge, and two additional 120 ohm resistors (small ones) in series to complete the bridge] Well, I don't want to break the gages so lets protect them. Epoxy, 5 min kind. Very flexible and soft compared to metal and the superglue glueline. [looks to be a Permatex brand, general purpose two part expoxy, "Perma Oxy"]

Youtube Videos
35 min video - great!
I also looked at the following to "confirm" strategy:
burg0183 for UofM - "Strain Gage Tutorial"
queenesfahan - U of Concordia, Montreal; Strain Gauge Installation Part 1
part 2 of above video
Univ of Jordan
Suggestions for installing a Strain Gauge
This is a compilation of Suggestions, mostly from Keith Wakeham:
- work on stack of clean paper, discard layers as you go along
- thoroughly clean area - mask off area (optional) with good tape
- degrease with acetone, wipe off in one direction;
- degrease before sanding to prevent forcing grease into sanding grooves
- sanding to bare metal, not much finer than 400 grit, use wet sandpaper (vishay recommends mild/diluted phosphoric acid)
- some recommend sanding in circular patterns to prevent "channels" that can affect strain readings
- neutralize with light ammonia water (ok on skin) - "neutralizer"
- find a clean piece of plastic/glass as a 'staging area' (this is the surface you use to stick gage to tape before application to host)
- do not grab a gage by the fine resistance lines -- grab corners near foil/solder pads, and only with tweezers
- put strain gage on staging area, top side up
- use "strain gage instrumentation tape" (i.e., weakened, transparent, 'reusable' tape)
- put the tape over the gage lying on the staging area, starting on one end and "laying" tape over gage so no air bubbles are trapped
- when top surface of gauge is bonded to the sticky side of the tape, peel back one end using shallow angle
- this is intended to remove both tape and gage from the staging glass without the gage separating from the tape or bending
- align the gage over the host, using the 'alignment marks' if necessary to get the right position
- press one end of the tape down and using your thumb, smooth the tape down forcing out all air bubbles
- verify position of the strain gage on the host
- at shallow angle (again), peel back the gage with its carrier to expose the bare metal of the host
- take 'off-the-shelf' superglue (cyanoacrylate) [vishay of course has special stuff for all of this]
- put a line/bead of glue at the beginning of the gage space, and then 'roll out' the gage/carrier over the glue [much like Polaroid film packs used to be processed by being squeezed between two rubber rollers which evenly distributed the chemicals -- the key here is to get just the right amount of glue to evenly cover the gage and not have too much/excess squeezing out, making an ugly glue line]. You're aiming for an 8 micron layer of glue...
- apply steady pressure over the gage for at least a minute -- maybe 5 mins; test will be if edges stay down if trying to pick up with pick
- after glue has set (allow 24 hrs for *full* cure), peel back carrier tape, this time at oblique angle, since gage stays on metal host
- pull back the tape just barely past the solder pads, leaving the rest of the tape to protect the gage while attaching the wire leads
- solder fine wires to gage solder pads; Keith uses 34 ga. copper "magnet wire" which has a fine (enamel) insulation layer
- you do NOT want leads to touch bare metals, since it will skew the ohms reading, plus pick up lots of RF, since metal acts as antenna
- do not use any wire that's already been bent!
- HBM says use solder tip temp of 250-270 degrees Centigrade
- all parts to be soldered must be "wetted" with flux -- which is colophonium dissolved in "methylated spirits" (alcohol?) ...
- solder has "colophonium core"?
- "tin" both the solder pads and the wire ends; Keith applies liquid flux directly to gage pads before tinning them
- when solder on pads is cool, remove excess flux with rosin solvent (alcohol?)
- flux is mildly conductive, so it can act as a bridge/shunt/short between solder pads, which kills the gage's accuracy!
- flux cleaner can also be conductive, so allow it to completely dry before testing
- check for continuity between gage and ground (host bare metal) -- you do NOT want ANY continuity here (more than 10K megaohms!)
- protect the strain gage using air dry polyurethane; still have masked off area ... press wires down against metal to keep a low profile
- maybe use a second layer of polyurethane; you don't want to have any conductivity for this protective stuff (5 gigaohm resistance is ok!)
- I wonder if the black plastic self-bonding tape (Duluth Trading) would be good for protecting strain gage on round handlebars?

Calibration of a Strain Gage Bridge

With all of the variables present in a strain gage installation, it's necessary to establish a level of confidence in what is being measured. One way to do this is to apply a predetermined mechanical input or strain on the system (such as hanging a bowling ball with a known weight on the handlebars) and comparing that to the indicated signal output. Another is to simply change the resistance of one leg of the Wheatstone Bridge by some known amount(?R). If this change is accomplished using a high value resistor connected in parallel ("shunted") over one of the bridge's legs, this is known as "Shunt Calibration." This method lets you compare the measured output of the bridge with the expected value, and make whatever corrections are needed.

Load Cells

A "load cell" is simply a mechanical device with one or more strain gages already built into it.
Typical wiring for load cells: (if only three wires, the negative input/output wires are common)
INPUT wires: (Excitation, typically 3.33-10VDC) Red+, Black-
OUTPUT (Signal) wires: Green+, White-
These load cells are from postal scales rated for 1Kg and 5Kg. Because they have 4 wires, we know they use a full bridge strain gage configuration.
photo of load cells

Instrumentation Amplifier ICs and modules

Integrated "in-amp" ICs (e.g., IN-128)

These chips are differential amplifiers with a very high input impedance. They include the TI INA-122, INA-125, INA-128, INA-129, and the AD623, AD8553, AD8556, AD8221; MAX4194, LT1167.
Digikey sells the TI INA128P [Part Number INA128P-ND] for $11.31 (Feb 2014)

Deb got 2 of these, but for $4.68 each via US seller on ebay. These chips are standard 8 pin DIPs.
photo of invoice
An instrumentation amp is a package containing two op-amps to filter/buffer/clean up the input voltage/signal, and another op-amp that multiplies the cleaned up input by a factor of "x" (gain), which is controllable by the user of the instr. amp via an external resistor (R-gain).
Another property of an instrumentation amplifier is that it has a high common mode rejection ratio, which means that if there are very quickly changing values in BOTH SIGNAL INPUTS, it dampens/smoothens/averages these changes.
The idea is to focus the measurement on the small differences (voltage swings) between the two inputs., not on any larger signals common to both inputs. [Greg Lewin:]

Tringa designed/built Instrumentation Amplifier module (INA)

See dedicated page to Tringa's INA

Because the eRowBike1 does not use PAS as part of its e-assist strategy, we decided to design a simpler (fewer inputs and outputs) strain gage amplifier circuit. We assumed that we'd obtain our torque signal from a Wheatstone bridge strain gage configuration that was excited at either 5 or 10VDC, either which is available from the CA. The amplifier module's output would be mapped into the 1-4VDC range, maing it compatible with a typical ebike throttle.
We selected an Instrumentation Amplifier chip that only needed a single voltage (rail) input, and would allow sufficient gain and filtering to utilize the expected 4-5 millivolt (mV) signal coming from the strain gage array.

photo of Tringa INA board with strain gage inputs

Justin's Complete Instrumentation Amplifier module

We also got a completed Instrumentation Amplifier board from Justin at in Vancouver, BC for $40. This board will support both a half-wave and a full-bridge strain gage configuration. It uses a high quality dual op-amp, which Justin happened to have on hand for CA manufacturing.

Has onboard linear regulator for use with 6-16V DC supply Can be run from 5V by putting jumper on R11 Default gain of 1000x. Set by resistors R3/R6 and R8/R5
For Half Bridge, connect signal to S2 For Full Bridge, remove resistors R9 and R10, and connect bridge signals to both S1 and S2
photo of GRIN Amplifier board with strain gage inputs
Online documentation for this board

Correspondence with Justin - Re Strain Gages, etc.

Weight Sensing Longboard with Inline Wheel Motors
Another project where Justin used strain gauges and a CA3 to control a "vehicle"













Mixing Inputs:
Throttle, Torque, PAS(Cadence)

Credit for this outline is given to many members on the ES forum, such as Justin (above), and specific posts and threads including this one by user "Avitt".

An "ideal" e-assist for lightweight electric (assist) vehicles (LEV's) will need to consider the following conditions, and would likely involve a "mix" of all three sensor inputs:

1) Takeoff from stop
For both convenience and safety reasons, getting an LEV rolling smoothly and predictably from a dead stop is critical. When the light turns green, you want to be clear of that intersection as quickly as possible.
s With a PAS sensor alone, there is some delay before the power comes on. If the LEV is using pedals, this is typically a half-revolution of the cranks. A LEV is heavier due to the addition of the motor, controller, battery, and "beefed up" components. If 'downshifting' is available, it will typically need to have been done before stopping -- not always an option used. This condition is best addressed by use of a throttle or torque sensor. Note that many control systems using a throttle require the LEV to be already moving (2-3MPHP, or "walking speed") for safety reasons. This severely limits the use of the throttle to assist in getting going from a dead stop. There is no such limitation for torque sensors.

2) Maintaining desired speed
Once safely underway, there are many radically different expectations that need to be met by the LEV's assist sytem. The rider may want a lot of exercise, or none at all. The only way to meet the needs on this spectrum is to have an assist system that can be 'dialed in' from fully "OFF" to "WOT" (wide-open throttle).
If using torque sensing only, the rider must be constantly supplying some amount of force to maintain the desired speed. If using a 'mixing computer' such as the Cycle Analyst, there is a lot of room for adjustment, but because most sensors are limited in their detection range, this amount of required force is often relatively large.
A "throttle only" system can meet this condition in that a rider can use as much assist as desired, but it requires constant attention and decision making. (Some systems support a "cruise control" mode in which speed is maintained at a level determined by holding the throttle at a constant level for several seconds.)
A PAS only system requires that the rider is constantly pedaling, or rowing, or moving whatever mechanism this particlar LEV is using for propulsion. It may not require much effort, depending on the level of assist that is selected, but it does require constant motion. The advantage of PAS is its intuitive interface -- the faster you move, the faster you go. The amount of exercise you get is dialed in via the "assist level".
In some jurisdictions (countries), this PAS "Pedalec" system is a legal requirement, so the rider has no choice about its use.

At this point it should be fairly obvious that my preference for a universally ideal system (if it could exist) would be an LEV that included sensors of all three types: manual throttle, torque, and cadence (PAS). A programmable computing device, such as the Cycle Analyst, will accept the input from all sensors and mix/blend/condition them into a single signal going into the controller, which determines when and how much the motor(s) spin. Note that 'garden variety' controllers for BLDC motors, such as the "Infineon" type and their derivatives, will typically have limited inputs, including 'throttle only', in which case a 'mixing' device is mandatory if you want to use multiple sensors. Having the ability to combine all sensor inputs upstream from the controller, and giving the controller a single 1-4 volt DC "throttle" signal, may make the tuning process for the LEV much simpler. The computer determines the performance characteristics of the LEV, and optionally provides levers, buttons, etc. to the user/rider to customize their riding experience based on circumstances or their preferences on that particular ride.







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