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Other (e)Bike Projects Encountered













Luna Eclipse 48V folding

This is a photo of the Luna Eclipse ebike from the company's catalog page. Per Luna, "it's a known Bafang G06 motor with a generic controller and a matched display." It is available in black or silver, but only in one size. It weighs 55 pounds. Obviously the California-based Luna Cycle company does not manufacture the Luna Eclipse, but it does sell/service this model. Luna most likely selected this particular configuration from a Chinese manufacturer and imported it to the US for sale as the "Luna Eclipse" model shown on their website. Unfortunately this photo of a black bike against a dark background isn't the best choice for displaying its appearance. luna_eclipse_ebike_folding_black_dealer_photo_photo

Specs scraped from the site Oct 1, 2023:

This basic frame also appears to be used with the Eahora X5 folding ebike with a 350 W Shengyi hub-drive motor motor. At least one difference between that model and the Luna Eclipse is that the Eahora uses a chain and derailleur vs. the Gates belt drive used on the Luna Eclipse. Also, the Eclipse comes with a rear suspension, which the X5 does not have. All of these frames appear to be all-aluminum construction. Below is a picture of the actual ebike we have (coming "soon").

Wiring harness, cables, and connectors

This ebike uses the common Higo and Julet branded connectors in a standard configuration, so a good starting point is to review that. See Higo/Julet 2 to 6 pin "standard" connectors elsewhere on this site.

The cable connecting the controller to the Bafang rear hub motor is a standard 9 pin configuration, with three heavier wires for the phase current, three wires for the Hall signals, and three additional wires for the optional RPM data, temperature, and ...

Controller (Lishui)

This is the 48V Lishui BLDC motor controller found in the ebike when acquired by us. It is made by and has a rating of 11A (528 watts) continuous (22A max). This is very marginal for this ebike, but the controller appeared fine when the bike was acquired used in 2023. If the motor is putting out its rated 500* watts at 48 volts, it would be pulling 10.42 amps from the battery and through this controller. If the controller didn't somehow limit this current internally, it could easily overheat. Note the manufacturing date of August 2022. A 2023 search of the manfacturer's website did not return a result for this particular LSW1482-14-11M model. The 2023 version of Luna's website claims that the Luna Eclipse comes with a motor/controller combination capable of "1000 Watts of rear hub motor power (21amps continuous)".

* The same page also describes the same Bafang motor having a 750 watt rating. It's actually quite common to have wildly varying power ratings for the exact same motor. Controller power ratings are less likely to exhibit this behavior.

The Lishui model LD-LS83 (500 watts) appears to have similar specs as the LSW1482 model, but the website does not show plug and pin level data, which is necessary for debugging purposes.

During normal use, the controller and the corresponding wiring is stuffed into the ebike's frame cavity, seen here in the background. The wire bundles coming out the controller are split into the power section (battery and motor connections) and the display/control section (shown taken apart in the photo). Identifying each of the control wires in the Julet 8 pin female connector will be shown in later sections, below (eventually).

Testing the controller eventually ... confirm number of MOSFETs, etc. Probably a sine wave controller -- but could be FOC. Per ES, there exists open source software that allows (some?) Lishui controllers to have their firmware re-programmed. This would allow LVC, assist levels, speed limitation, etc. to be changed. Most controllers need power, ground, and one other pin "pulled high" to power up. This other pin is often called "Ignition" or "Power Lock" or similar. The mechanism used to pull this line high (to battery voltage) can be a mechanical switch or done through the display, or a combination of both.

Display (Topology DS104)

The biggest mystery at this point is the display used on the Luna Eclipse, which is not yet positively identified, but probably a Topology DS104. A failed display unit may account for the fact that this ebike will not power up in its current configuration. This display comes with a hardwired handlebar switch for all necessary control functions except the brake and throttle functions, which have their own devices on the handlebars. A display only needs power and ground to power up, so identifying these two pins should be the first effort. (Most controllers need power, ground, and one other pin "pulled high" to power up.)

Any time you encounter a display on an ebike or other LEV, it's handy to classify it into one of roughly three types/categories:

  1. A 'dumb' (passive) display which largely receives power and data FROM the controller, but doesn't really talk back to the controller. An exception might be that the display incorporates some sort of switch used to turn the controller ON or OFF. This type of display is usually cheap and will work with nearly any controller, as long as you match the right wires. These displays don't use touchscreens because there is no user input.
  2. A display which is designed to work with one or more specific controllers. These displays will typically have two dedicated wires used for bi-directional communication with the controller. Look for transmit data (TxD) and receive data (RxD) connectors to identify this type of display. If your display powers up but doesn't do what it's supposed to do, check these lines between the display and the controller for faults. Mismatched communication protocols will have the same result -- it won't damage either the display or the controller, but it just won't work right.
  3. A 'smart' display that is actually capable of its own control functions, and is really much more than just a 'display.' These displays typically contain microcontrollers and programmable firmware, and are worthy of their own extensive documentation. A good example of this type of display is Grin Technology's Cycle Analyst series. These can be made to work with many different kinds of controllers because of the variety of ways in which they can be used.

The display used on the Eclipse fits into the Type 2 classification. This photo of the front face of the display. Physically, this display bears a remarkable similarity to the "Brose DS103C Topology E Bike Display TFT 3,5" + Schalter BMZ DS103 Bloks Gen.2" found on the web. The 200 euro price tag for the high-end Brose brand doesn't seem to match this Eclipse display, but the DS103C is a color display while this is advertised as a monochrome. A touchscreen would also justify a higher price.

Showing the back of the OEM display unit with a "standard" Higo 5-pin/green female connector and cable, plus a separate cable directly connected to the handlebar control swith with the ON/OFF, "M" (menu) button, and the up/down rocker switches to change the assist level. The back of the display's plastic case has injection molding marks that include a "Topology" brand/logo, and a "DS104" model number.

Two of these 5 pins/wires connecting the display to the controller will certainly be the positive and negative power connections. Since this display with its attached handlebar switches is used to power the bike on and off, one of the 5 pins/wires will likely be used to turn the main controller on and off. This leaves two wires to handle numerous other functions, and the only way that can happen is if there is an agreement between the controller and display on how to send this data back and forth. This is referred to as a shared communications protocol, and it must be the same for both devices. A mismatched display may light up when the power button is turned on, but it won't communicate correctly with the controller.

It should be remembered that in general it is the *controller* that dictates what the ebike motor actually does, and that the controller has the 'memory' of what settings are in effect at any given moment. Quoting Delphis1982 from "Die Einstellungen im Controller überstimmen quasi jegliche Einstellung innerhalb des Displays." Roughly translated it means that the settings in the controller dictate whatever settings appear to be in the display. In many cases it's also possible to directly change settings in the controller via a separate software program running on a computing device attached to the controller via a compatible "programming cable."

Or, they could also be following this pattern, where the display is connected to the controller via a transmit/receive communication bus [Kommunikationsmethode:UART(Standard)]. Note that in this case the colors of the five wires are substantially different. The brown "anode" pin in our case goes to the battery's 48V positive. The orange "power to the controller" pin/wire when shorted momentarily [~2 seconds] to the 48V positive line "turns on" the controller/ebike. Thus, for testing purposes, a momentary SPST switch between the brown and orange wires should turn the controller ON. [photo courtesy of the German language site] See also this photo in this site's "Connectors" section. We should be able to identify the negative/ground pin, since it will have zero ohms to the battery negative terminal.

Display Connector Summary

Higo/Julet connectors all have a small key on the male side and a corresponding notch on the female connector. All pins and wires identified by a number, starting with 1.

For our purposes here, these numbers will be assigned as follows. {or should we go with holding key at 12 o'clock ??}
Hold either the male (M) or the female (F) connector so that the key/notch is at the bottom (6 o'clock) and facing you.
F: pin #1 is just to the RIGHT (3 to 5 o'clock) of that. All consecutive pins are assigned an incremental number going COUNTER-clockwise.
M: pin #1 is just to the LEFT (7 to 9 o'clock) of that. All consecutive pins are assigned an incremental number going CLOCKWISE.

Higo 5 Pin Display Connector
Type: Bafang | (KT | Lishui )
Pin #
1 Orange IGN Pull high to PWR to turn on controller
2 White TxD Transmit data from display (TO controller)
3 Brown PWR Power; battery pack positive voltage [24,36,48,52,etc.]
4 Green RxD Receive data from controller (TO display)
5 Black GND Battery pack negative; system ground

Be aware that sometimes when you encounter a five wire bundle on an ebike, the colors of the wires might be red, black, blue, yellow, and green. This combination is frequently used to connect the controller to the motor. If so, convention would identify them as follows:

If the cables are thin this bundle is likely for the motor's (optional) Hall sensor data, otherwise the wires carry power for the motor or controller.

Using current versions of AI to find pinout definitions for this display

The question: What are the pinout definitions for a Topology DS104 ebike display?


I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any specific information about a "Topology DS104 ebike display" in my training data up to September 2021. It's possible that this particular display is not widely documented or that it was released after my last update.

To find the pinout definitions for the Topology DS104 ebike display, I would recommend the following steps:

Remember to prioritize safety and warranty considerations when working with electronic devices. If you're not confident in your ability to identify the pinout safely, it's best to seek professional assistance or wait for official documentation from the manufacturer.


Bard came back with a very detailed and specific answer to the question -- unfortunately it wasn't exactly right and to the point either.
Please note that this is a general pinout diagram, and the specific wiring may vary depending on your ebike model. It is always best to consult your ebike's manual or contact the manufacturer for specific wiring instructions.

Here is a more detailed description of each signal: